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The Pomeranian is a small, foxy-faced Spitz type of dog belonging to the Toy breed group. Its origins can be traced back to the Pomerania Province. The breed has a long line of nicknames including Pom, Pom-Dog, Pom-Pom, Pom, Zwers, and Tumbleweed.
The Pom is a playful and friendly lapdog. It is small but does not back down from a fight when provoked. Although it is a fierce and competitive breed, it is also a sweet companion dog and great around young children.
Grooming requires more time and effort to prevent matting and tangles. The Pom is an active dog breed that requires moderate exercises and will love playtime with its humans. Owning this small pooch costs £21,200–£25,000 over its 12-year lifespan.
Are you thinking of getting a Pomeranian? Here is a brief background of this vivacious and spunky pooch.
The Pomeranian's origin country is still up for debate. Some believe that he hails from the province of Pomerania, which he is named after. It is a region located between Germany and Poland. In France, a dog breed called Chien de Pomaranie or dog of Pomerania existed.
On the other hand, Italy is known to have a dog breed that comes in colours of bright orange and yellow, which is thought to be the Pom. It goes by the name of Italian spitz, Lupino, and Volpino.
In the 1700s, numerous dog breeds were classified by Carl Linnaeus of Sweden. This includes the Canis Pomeranus. He has observed that these dogs are commonly found in Central and Northern Europe. These dogs measure 45 to 50 centimetres tall and come in pale yellow to cream colours.
The exact breeds that make up the Pom are unknown when it comes to the lineage. However, The Pomeranian is thought to have descended from ancient large spitz types of sled dogs.
In Europe and Asia, spitz breeds were prominent and have existed for a long time. Historical evidence in forms of paintings suggests that these canines have been around since 400 BC.
The German Spitz, Norwegian Elkhound, and American Eskimo dog are some of the Pom's predecessors. As a result, the early Pomeranians were large dogs, some weighing up to thirty pounds. They were tasked to protect homes and livestock as well as pulling carts and sleds.
The Pomeranian quickly rose to popularity in royal circles. He was beloved by renowned personalities like Martin Luther, Michelangelo, Isaac Newton, and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
However, the Pomeranian breed only became highly favoured by the general public during the 1880s partly due to the efforts of Queen Victoria who fell in love with the breed. She established a kennel that bred small size Pomeranians after owning a twelve-pound Pom named Marco.
This inspired Pomeranian breeders to reduce the breed's size further. The Pom went from being a big pooch to a well-loved toy dog that excels in dog shows.
In 1891, the Pomeranian Breed Club was established in England. This was followed by the creation of the first breed standard. The Pom remains one of the most popular breeds in the world. He is officially recognised by the Kennel Club in the UK.
The Pomeranian is the smallest of the spitz-type dogs. He weighs 1.5–2.5 kilos and stands 13–28 centimetres at the withers. It takes him 7 to 10 months to reach his full size.
He has a slightly flat skull and small erect ears. His head and nose have a foxy outline. He has dark and almond-shaped eyes. His nose can be dark or take the same colour as its coat.
The Pom has a thick double coat. It is comprised of a long, straight, and harsh outer coat with a soft and fluffy undercoat. His hair is thicker around the neck, shoulders, and chest. He has a noticeable feathering around his forequarters, thighs, and hind legs.
According to the Kennel Club, all coat colours are permissible on the breed. However, there should be no black or white shadings. Common colours include black, white, brown, and blue. Merle is considered a fault.
The Pomeranian breed is not a heavy shedder, but it noticeably leaves behind some stray hairs.
A Pomeranian puppy starts shedding around 4 to 6 months. Once he reaches 10 months old, he should have a complete, adult coat. Full-grown Poms shed throughout the year and heavily during spring and summer.
Spring shedding occurs when their winter coat is replaced by a lighter summer coat. On the other hand, a thick winter coat replaces their summer coat during summer shedding.
The Pomeranian is not a hypoallergenic dog breed. Although his fur does not trigger allergic reactions, it can transport dander. Thus, the more loose hairs the Pom sheds, the more dander there will be. For this reason, the breed is not the best choice for people with allergies.
If you still wish to have a Pomeranian as a pet, there are ways to lessen dander in your home. Brushing and Bathing him regularly effectively reduces dander.
Cleaning your home often also helps prevent allergen build-up. Make sure to wear a mask to avoid inhaling allergens. You may want to invest in High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters which greatly help in getting rid of dander.
When it comes to grooming, keeping the Pomeranian's coat in top shape requires time and effort. Since it is long and fine, brushing it a few times daily is important to keep shedding at bay. This also prevents matting and tangles.
Certain areas need to be regularly trimmed like the face, ears, backside, and feet. Bathing should be done at least once or twice a month. Taking the Pom to a professional groomer four to five times a year helps keep his coat tidy and manageable.
Grooming your Pomeranian's coat may take up most of your time, but other grooming needs must also be met. Careful grooming and weekly examination will help in the early detection of health problems.
Make sure to brush your Pomeranian's teeth two to three times a week as he is prone to dental problems. Trim his nails and clean his ears weekly. Inspect his body for ticks, fleas, redness, and other signs of inflammation.
Note that the Pomeranian breed is prone to tear stains. It is characterised by a reddish or brownish discolouration beneath and around its eyes. This is caused by debris from dirt, sand, food bits or eye crusts which stick to the coat.
To remove tear stains, use a soft damp washcloth or dog-safe eye wipes. Make sure to dry the wet area around the Pom's eyes after cleaning. Allowing it to remain moist regularly can lead to red yeast infection.
The Pomeranian is often described as an intelligent and animated extrovert. Along with its small stature comes a big personality. It loves being around people, especially family members. It usually develops a strong bond with one person and can become overly protective or jealous.
The Pom generally gets along with other animals but will fight back against other dogs, even large ones, when provoked. It is ideal for families with older children who know how to handle small and sometimes snappy dogs.
The breed is not for a busy family that is often out of the house as the Pom can develop separation anxiety. It tends to be noisy and destructive when left alone.
The Pomeranian may be cute, but he's not for timid first-time owners who tolerate the dog's stubborn ways. He is a quick learner but can be very wilful during training.
The Pom is a promising watchdog as he is naturally suspicious of strangers. However, he tends to bark excessively. This trait should be taken into consideration if you are looking for an apartment pet.
On the bright side, this behaviour can be managed by focusing his training on socialisation and basic dog manners. Since the Pom loves attention, be generous in giving praises and treats.
When owning a dog, always remember that regardless of their predispositions, each of them is unique. There are a lot of contributing factors that facilitate personality development. These include genetics, environment, and exposure to different people and other experiences when they're young.
A typical serving for an adult Pomeranian is a quarter to a half cup of excellent-quality dry dog food per day. Remember that the amount of food and the timing depend on his age, size, build, activity level, and metabolism.
Always do your research and ask your trusted vet about the best diet for your Pomeranian.
The following is the typical daily calorie needs of an adult Pomeranian:
The Pomeranian thrives on diets rich in protein, at least 85 per cent from animal sources and 15 per cent vegetables and fruits. Because the breed is prone to skin allergies, it is better to go grain-free.
Choose high-quality dog food with tiny kibbles made, especially for small dogs for easy chewing and digestion. For a healthy coat, ensure that the Pom gets enough omega fatty acids from fish. For the joints, including supplements and food containing glucosamine and chondroitin in the diet.
As toy breeds, Pomeranians have a long lifespan and can live for around 12 -16 years.
The breed is generally healthy but predisposed to certain health conditions, including eye and dental problems. It can also get allergies, epilepsy, luxating patellas, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, and collapsed trachea.
Regular vet check-ups help in the early detection of potential health issues. It is also crucial to acquire your puppy from a reputable breeder who screens their breeding stock.
This will lessen the likelihood of producing a litter that are prone to inheriting hereditary diseases. The suggested health tests for the breed are knee, eye, and hip evaluation and cardiac exam.
The Pomeranian is active indoors. He only requires at least 40-minute exercise every day. A short walk or playtime works well with him. Since he is known to confront larger dogs fearlessly, it is best to keep him on the lead during walks, especially in dog parks.
Mentally stimulating activities are great too as he loves challenging toys and enjoys doing new things. The Pom can be taught agility, tracking, and flyball drills.
The Pomeranian breed is prone to heatstroke. Hence, exercise should be done early in the morning or late afternoon to avoid hot weather. The Pom is often mistaken for rabbits or squirrels by large predatory birds including hawks and owls. Keep him safe by closely monitoring him whilst he is playing outdoors.
Getting a well-bred pedigree Pomeranian puppy will cost you £2,000-£4,000. The monthly expenses for providing him with quality dog food is around £20-£30. Purchasing treats and accessories such as food bowls, leads, collars, and a bed can set you back £200.
Aside from the initial purchase, monthly cost for ranges from £20 for a basic cover-up to £47 for a lifetime cover. These prices vary depending on your dog's health, age, size, weight, and where you live in the UK.
You may also need to set aside £800 a year for veterinary consultations and other necessary procedures for the first year. These include vaccinations, boosters, neutering/spaying as these are not normally covered by pet insurance.
Caring for the Pomeranian will cost you an average of £55-£80 a month. This is exclusive of walking or grooming services that you might want to use at times.
Are you sure the Pomeranian is the best breed for you? Take the Pet Breed Selector Quiz to find your perfect breed match.Dog Breed Selector Quiz
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